- Sunday 16 Jun 2019
Drug delays type 1 diabetes in people at high risk: Study
PTI, Jun 10, 2019, 4:29 PM IST
Washington: In a first, scientists have developed a treatment that can delay type 1 diabetes by two or more years among people who are at high risk.
The research, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, involved treatment with an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (teplizumab).
Participants were randomly assigned to either the treatment group, which received a 14-day course of teplizumab, or the control group, which received a placebo.
All participants received glucose tolerance tests regularly until the study was completed, or until they developed clinical type 1 diabetes — whichever came first.
During the trial, 72 per cent of people in the control group developed clinical diabetes, compared to only 43 per cent of the teplizumab group.
The median time for people in the control group to develop clinical diabetes was just over 24 months, while those who developed clinical diabetes in the treatment group had a median time of 48 months before progressing to diagnosis.
Type 1 diabetes develops when the immune system’s T cells mistakenly destroy the body’s own insulin-producing beta cells. Insulin is needed to convert glucose into energy.Teplizumab targets T cells to lessen the destruction of beta cells.
“Previous clinical research found that teplizumab effectively slows the loss of beta cells in people with recent onset clinical type 1 diabetes, but the drug had never been tested in people who did not have clinical disease,” said Kevan C Herold, of Yale University.
“We wanted to see whether early intervention would have a benefit for people who are at high risk but do not yet have symptoms of type 1 diabetes,” Herold.
The effects of the drug were greatest in the first year after it was given, when 41 per cent of participants developed clinical diabetes, mainly in the placebo group.
Many factors, including age, could have contributed to the ability of teplizumab to delay clinical disease, since at-risk children and adolescents are known to progress to type 1 diabetes faster than adults.
Faster progression of type 1 diabetes is associated with a highly active immune system, which may explain the impact of immune system-modulating drugs like teplizumab.
Other data collected from the trial may help researchers to understand why certain people responded to treatment. Participants who responded to teplizumab tended to have certain autoantibodies and other immune system characteristics.
The research team also cautioned that the study had limitations, including the small number of participants, their lack of ethnic diversity, and that all participants were relatives of people with type 1 diabetes, potentially limiting the ability to translate the study broadly.
New Delhi: Becoming a father is one of the most rewarding experiences in life. However, it also comes with big responsibilities and sacrifices. Accord....
Washington: Mastering a new skill -- whether a sport, an instrument, or a craft -- causes new neural activity patterns to emerge in the brain, a study....
An unhealthy, inflamed gut can drive breast cancer to become much more invasive and promote the spread of the disease to other parts of the body. A....
Washington: Food tastes better when you are sitting down, say scientists who found that holding a standing posture for even a few minutes prompts phys....
The Internet can alter specific brain regions and affect our attention capacity, memory processes and social interaction, a study has found. The resea....
New Delhi: India had carried out one of its best evacuation operations from a war-like zone in 2006, when it brought back home around 2,300 people, in....
Washington: US President Donald Trump on Saturday accused The New York Times of "a virtual act of treason," after it reported the US is stepping up di....
London: Daniel Craig is back in the gym after sustaining an injury on the sets of the 'Bond 25' film. The James Bond star, who underwent minor surg....
London: Scientists have developed soft, wearable rehabilitative devices that can help elderly and disabled people move with comfort and safety. Acc....
Cardiff: South Africa all-rounder Chris Morris has credited head coach Ottis Gibson for making him a better bowler. The Proteas finally banked the....